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Clinical presentation
Clin. aproach to ivestig. and menag. of UTI
Cortical scintigraphy in urinary tract infection
Cystigraphy in urinary tract infection
Vesicourethral reflux (VUR)
The grading systems for vesicourethral eflux
Detection of vesicourethral reflux
Micturating cystourethrography (MCUG)
Radionucleotide cystography (RNC)
Direct radionuclide cystography (DRC)
Indirect radionuclide cystography (IRC)
Dynamic renal scintigraphy in UTI
Practical problems in pediatric nucl.med.
Dose schedule
Imobilisation/ sedation


Fear of venepucture is a reality for most children, and is quite often a major source of worry for the child, the parents and sometimes also personnel. In order to perform venepunctures successfully, consideration must be given to practical matters such the use of local anaesthetic and possibly most important of all, aspects of care [18]. Eutectic mixture of local anaesthetic cream (EMLA) should be applied 45 min before examination. This allows ample time for adequate fluid intake if a dynamic scan is to be undertaken ( at least 100 ml even for the infant). Venepuncture must be performed by skilled personnel. The injection should be done using a butterfly needle with three-way tap so that minimal manipulation of the needle is required [5,14].


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