Walter Vogt publishes the first "fate map" of a vertebrate
embryo -- a description of how cells move from their original positions
in the early embryo to their ultimate destination.
Fritz Albert Lipmann [b. Königsberg (Kaliningrad, Russia), November
12, 1899, d. Poughkeepsie, New York, July 24, 1986] isolates adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) from muscle tissue and elucidates its role: It
forms the link between energy generation and energy utilization
in the cell. See also 1937 Biology.
Adolf Friedrich Butenandt [b. Bremerhaven-Lehe, Germany, March
24, 1903, d. Munich, Germany, January 18, 1995] isolates estrone,
a female sex hormone. See also 1927 Biology; 1931 Biology.
Phoebus Levene discovers that a previously unknown sugar, deoxyribose,
is found in nucleic acids that do not contain ribose. Such nucleic
acids are now known as deoxyribonucleic acids, or DNA. See also
1909 Chemistry; 1936 Biology
John Howard Northrop [b. Yonkers, New York, July 5, 1891, d. Wickenberg,
Arizona, May 27, 1987] develops new techniques for crystallization
of enzymes. He crystallizes trypsin this year and other enzymes
in following years.
Manfred J. Sakel [b. Nadvorna, Austria, June 6, 1900, d. December
2, 1947] introduces insulin shock for the treatment of schizophrenia
and other mental disorders. See also 1937 Medicine & health.
German psychiatrist Hans Berger [b. Neuses, Germany, May 21, 1873,
d. Jena, Germany, June 1, 1941] develops the electroencephalogram
(EEG), a device for collecting and recording human brain waves.
Oswald Avery and coworkers at the Rockefeller Institute (Rockefeller
University) discover C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker in blood
for the total amount of inflammation in all the tissues of a person.
Werner Forssmann [b. Berlin, August 29, 1904, d. Schopfheim (Germany),
June 1, 1979], using himself as a test patient, proves that a catheter
inserted into the vein inside a person's elbow can be safely threaded
into the heart where it can be observed on an X ray. See also 1956
Medicine & health.
Christiaan Eijkman of the Netherlands and Sir Frederick Hopkins
of England win the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine for their
work with vitamins. See also 1897 Medicine & health.
Prince Louis de Broglie of France wins the Nobel Prize for physics
for his discovery of the wave character of electrons
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