6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.


Muhammad Afzal JAVED

Consultant psychiatrist & senior lecturer, University of Warwick the Medical Centre

Manor Court Avenue, Nuneaton CV11 5HX, United Kingdom

Recent psychiatric literature suggests a need to reconsider the place of religion and spirituality in Psychiatry. Despite the secularising influence of modern society, the presence of religiosity remains substantial and reports suggest the positive impact of religious beliefs and practices on day to day functioning and mental well being. It has also been well documented that the religious dimensions are amongst the most important factors that structure human experience, values, behaviour and illness pattern. This paper discusses the conceptual issues about this topic and addresses the needs to review the role of religion in mental health. A brief account is given about some studies looking at different aspects of this topic with future research directions. It is argued that there is a great need to acknowledge the role of religion and spirituality in understanding the aetiology, prognosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Similarly religion and psychiatry have a lot to say to each other and need to continue the dialogue to understand each other’s weaknesses and strengths for the betterment of the individual who is suffering.

Key Words: Religion - Mental Health - Treatment

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.




Faculty of Medicine ot the Sarajevo University, 71 000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Islamic culture, including its contribution to development of bio-medical sciences, and medicine in particular, has reached the highest level of development between the 9th and 11th centuries. It has brought a significant number of new, rather important discoveries during the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. During that time, the West had just started its wakening from the darkness of the Middle Ages. From the 12th century and until the period of renaissance, Arabic medical manuscripts had become available in Latin through translations and re-writings in the countries of Perinea and Apennine. Due to poor quality of translation, the original medical manuscripts of Arabic doctors and thinkers had lost its quality, which had influenced higher value of translations of later versions. Despite poor quality of those translations to Latin and other languages and the level of medical education in the western university medical centres, those manuscripts and other versions of them had revived the spirit of science in the Western Europe during the whole Middle Age.

Islamic authors of medical and other literature had become rather famous in the West, but under changed names – i.e. Razes instead of Ar-Razija; Avicenna instead of Ibn Sinaa; Alhazen instead of Ibn Haithama; Avenzoar instead of Ibn Zuhra, Averroes instead of Ibn Rušda; etc. Change of names had not happened accidentally. It was the result of centuries-lasting tendency of the West to hide, belittle, twist and destroy all that had its roots in the Islamic culture. Such efforts in the cultural world of the West, not even mentioning the plebes, the presented ones were only those, which could not have been ignored. A great contribution of Islamic authors to development of bio-medical sciences is indubitable. They had not only managed to preserve achievements of pre-Islamic authors, but had also given great contribution to those sciences and their disciplines through their own researches and had given them to us as dowry.


Key words: Islam – Islamic Medicine

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.



Consultant Psychiatrist and Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

It is well known that strong faith and religious affiliation mitigates mental illness. The presentation aims to present concepts from Islamic and Judeo Christian tradition and shows how these concepts can be applied to help in the treatment process. These will be used to develop practical cognitive therapies, which can be standardised and applied on patients who require a faith-based therapy.


Key words: Faith – Treatment – Depression

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.





ąPsychiatric Clinic of the University Clinical Centre, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, ˛Faculty of Islamic Sciences of the Sarajevo University, 71 000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Misuse of narcotics and other substances that cause addiction has been present on all meridians for a long time. It presents a great social and cultural problem of every community. Authors have firstly shown fundamental Islamic stands in relation to addictions, following the sources of Islamic rights, Announcement of Kur’an and practice of the God’s Emissary Muhamed a.s. (sunnet and hadis). Then, they have given the overview of the recent international classification of illnesses and kindred health problems according to the 10th Review of the International Classification of Illnesses (Group "F10-F19" – Mental disorders and disorders in behaviour caused by misuse of psycho-active substances). In accordance with medical qualifications of certain psycho-active substances and their damaging effect on psycho-social and physical well-being of an individual and a community, they tried to give an overview of Islamic stands dating from the time when Islam was born in the 7th Century of the New Era.


Key words: Islam – Drugs – Problems of Addiction


  1. El-Qaradawi J (1997) Halal and Haram in Islam. Sarajevo: NIPP Ljiljan
  2. El Azayem GA (1995) Role of the Mosque in Confronting the Epidemic of Substance Abuse. Mental Peace 4(1): 27-31.
  3. Feldman SR (1989) Essentials of Understanding Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.,
  4. Filipović N (1989) Truth about Marijuana and Hashish. Tuzla: Univerzal

6th International Congress of the WAIMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 999



1Department for Psychiatry, Universiy Clinical Center, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Columbia, USA

The war in Bosnia has made significant impact on homicide offences. The country was divided; many parts of the country were submitted to ‘ethnic cleansing’ and people become a subject of genocide. Even those parts of the country under the rule of legitimate and official Bosnian Government were separated and actually isolated one from other. Inside those areas, life (and homicides, too) developed in different way. Present study covers, for the period 1984-1991 and 1992-1993, all cases of intentional homicide, and all cases of violence resulting in death in the Tuzla region (excluding homicide by misadventure), which were the subject of forensic-psychiatric expertise. Two samples with 50 cases in each were formed; ‘pre-war’ and ‘war’ samples. From the Law’s point of view, both samples are the same. In each of the cases we had requested the Court and had visited offenders in prison. Social-demographic data, some criminological and some clinical characteristics, as well as some circumstances surrounding the event were statistically analysed. Before the war, 66% of homicides happened during the cold months; during winter or early spring. During the war, 70% homicide offences occurred during summer and autumn. Almost a half of the pre-war homicides (48%) took place over the weekends, while during the war distribution over the week was equal on all days. One of the biggest differences is the weapon or the method used for homicide: firearms were used in 84 homicides during the war, while in 82 cases before the war killers had used sharp instruments, assault, or an axe. Samples were compared by presence of sleep deprivation and stressful life events, as typical war related conditions, but the same were found in the pre-war samples. The role of alcohol in homicides is especially emphasised and positive association between alcohol and many other variables is mentioned.

Key words: War – Stress – Homicide


  1. Lester D (1993) The effect of War on Crime. Psychological Reports 73:381-382.
  2. O’Brien SL (1994) What will be the Psychiatric Consequences of the War in Bosnia? Br J Psychiatry, 164: 443-447.
  3. Sutović A (1996) Clinical and Psycho-diagnostic Characteristics of Soldiers with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Master thesis. School of Medicine, University of Tuzla (Mentor: Osman Sinanović, M.D,Ph.D.)

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.




Psychiatric Clinic, University Clinical centre, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

The paper gives a frame for significance of religion in the mental health of believers. Islamic views on soul as a fundamental principle of human living are given in it, as they are rightful and beneficial factors in stands and behaviour of individuals toward their souls. It also speaks of all negative influences on the soul, which creates a background for disturbance of mental well being, causing mental disorders and illnesses. Islam is the focus of the paper, as a complete order founded on the theory of the Announcement of Kur’an and the practice of the God’s Emissary Muhamed a.s., who gave the Announcement to the whole humankind. Fundamental theoretical and practical principles of Islam are given in it together with their beneficial protective and healing influence on mental, psychosocial and psychosomatic well being of an individual and a community where traditional routine of Islamic living is practised. The author has emphasised therapeutic role of Islamic principles in treatment of alcoholism, founded on four levels of cognitive behavioural approach as it was realised by the God’s Emissary Muhamed a.s., thorough his example and consistent following of the directions given in the text of the Kur’an. The author also extracts Islamic approach in treatment of depression founded on the text of the Kur’an where life is being preferred over the death; action is preferred over passivity; education over illiteracy; and light over darkness. Islamic approach in prevention of suicides and treatment of suicidal tendencies with possibility of its completion is founded on the God’s order where it is forbidden to harm oneself in any way, and where is explicitly forbidden to commit suicide. The paper gives fundamental Islamic principles, which can assist the people to overcome sudden, short-lasting or long-lasting disasters and misfortunes that cause psychological trauma and its acute and chronic consequences and provides more efficient and faster treatment.

Key words: Mental health – Islam – Alcoholism – Depression – Suicide - Trauma


  1. Abou El Azayem GM (1995) Role of the Mosque in Confronting the Epidemic of Substance Abuse. Mental Peace 4(1):27-31.
  2. Abou Elwafa E (1995) Sophism and the Treatment of the psyche. Mental Peace 4(1):19-22.
  3. Hussain MF (1991) Islamic Principles in Psychiatry. Mental Peace 2(1):13-17.
  4. Miller GA (1992) Integrating religion and psychology in therapy: issues and recommendations. Counselling and values, 36:112-122.
  5. Wilson J, Moran T (1997) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD in Context the of Spirituality. In: Wilson JP, Keane M (eds.). Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD: A Handbook for Clinical, Medical and Legal Practitioners. New York: Guilford Press.

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.


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Home for unaccompanied minors, Italian Humanitarian Organisation AMICA,


Psychiatric Clinic, University Clinical Centre of the Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Children are the most jeopardised and the most sensitive population in every aggression. In the past aggression over Bosnia and Herzegovina, and due to the long lasting and multiple traumas, children have developed a symptomatology with a wide range of symptoms. Dominate were the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive reactions. No matter the circumstances in which the victims of aggression are, the children require assistance and it must not be postponed until better conditions take place. There are many techniques and ways of working on assistance to children. Having learned the information on the war trauma and its consequences for the first time, many of us who were in contact with children have offered them different kinds of assistance and support for recovery – techniques of relaxation, talks with reconstruction of traumatic experiences, art therapy, organisation of various activities such as fine art club, pen club, drama club, music club, sport club and similar. Out of fear and curiosity over what happens to children, but also in order to correct ourselves, we followed possible effects of our assistance through talks, different questionnaires, URT recording of traumatic experiences, Birlesen’s scale for depression, impact of event scale and internal questionnaires for self-evaluation of effects of applied psycho-social activities. In this paper, some of experiences in the work with 47 unaccompanied minors during the war, followed by the analysis of the applied activities and the overview of positive effect in the sense of reduction of the symptoms of war trauma.


Key words: Unaccompanied Minors – War Trauma – Psycho-social Activities – Possibility of Recovery


  1. Ayalon O (1995) Save the Children /Manual of Group Activities for Assistance to Children under Stress. Zagreb: Školska knjiga
  2. Herman JL (1996) Stadiji opravka. U: Zdjelar R (ur). Trauma and Recovery. Zagreb: Ženska infoteka, 159-242.
  3. Ćatić B (1998) Traumatic Reactions and Possibility of Recovery of Children Exposed to War Activities. Master Thesis. Faculty of Medicine of the University of Tuzla (Mentor: Prof. PhD SCI. O. Sinanović)








6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999


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Departments of Dermatology, Psychiatry and Neurology, University Clinical Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tuzla, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

A prospective study was made that encompass 180 patients with psoriasis. Equal number of civilians and soldiers was in the patient group. The basic goal of the research was to examine psychosocial features of the patients. The analysis was made at the University Clinical Centre - Tuzla, as a result of co-operation between Departments of Dermatology and Psychiatry. Numerous measurement instruments were used, e.g. list of general data, psychosocial questionnaire, instrument for psychosocial examination such as SWL test (Satisfaction with Life score). Statistical analysis was made by the X- square test and variance quotient analysis. Results of analysis showed that social structure of the examined patients was low, and knowledge of illness and healing was poor, which gave negative influences to other components of the treatment. The most prominent number of patients belonged to the structure with low level of educated, decreased ego strength, and inclination to primary thinking process – magic thinking. The changes of life surroundings proceeded in disease exposure in 80% of soldiers and 63% of civilians. Psychological test (EPQ and MMPI 201) showed an extremely high level of hypochondria among soldiers. According to the capital features of personality no differences between soldiers and civilians were observed. Nevertheless, significant difference in MMPI is observed between examined patients (civilians – hypochondriacs, depression, psychasthenia and schizoid). Civilians showed paranoia and anxiety, but both of the groups had decreased ego strength level. Patients with psoriasis showed extreme level of psychotic tendency (EPQ-test), neurosis and extrovert behaviour. They wanted to exhibit themselves through a more desirable image.

Key words: Psychosocial/Psychological aspects – War – Psoriasis


  1. Suljagić E, Sinanović E, Moro Lj, Tupković E (2000) Stressful life events and
  2. Psoriasis during the War in Bosnia. Dermatol Psychosom 2000; 1 (Suppl 1): 36.

  3. Suljagić E (1999) Influence of Psychical Factors on Appearance and Development of Psoriasis Vulgaris. PhD Dissertation at the Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University (Mentor Prof. PhD SCI O. Sinanović)
  4. Gupta MA, Gupta AK (1996) Psychodermatology: An update. J Am Acad
  5. Dermatol 34:1030-1046.

  6. Harrison PV, Moore-Fitzgerald l (1994) Psoriasis Vulgaris Life Events and Coping

Skills. Br J Dermatol 130(6):798.

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.



Psychiatric Clinic, University Clinical Centre of the Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Medical assistance in suicide and euthanasia is the subject of difficult discussions in many countries of the world. The number of persons who commit suicide is increasing, and at the same time the number of persons who commit suicide with the medical assistance and within the programmes of euthanasia is also increasing. Groups in risk of suicide – elderly or chronically ill persons – are according to many researches the groups who are most likely to commit suicide with the assistance of a physician. Existence of the idea of "good death" presents the concept that is damaging the concept of preservation of health. According to the Criminal Law of Bosnia and Herzegovina, doctor and other persons are responsible before the Law in case where they support someone in its wish for a suicide or where they take part in someone’s decision to commit suicide. From the medical and ethical point of view over the medical assistance in suicide, one of the fundamental ethical principles of the Hypocrite’s Oath is being violated. That principle is "Do not kill and give no lethal medical". Suicide is declared as a God’s dislike in most of the religions and it meets their conviction. Assistance in commitment of a suicide and euthanasia are contradiction to the principle of the God’s right for holistic of human life. It is known that Islam affirms life and fulfilment of vital needs, and it rejects division on isolated spiritual and secular patterns of living and belief that the life should be foretold and destroyed in order to save the soul. Opening of the processes for legalisation of physician assisted suicide opens the possibility for misuse of patients. Bosnia and Herzegovina still does not features public discussions on physician assisted suicide and there are no recorded cases of it. Social, political and economic changes occurring as the consequences of war, and openness to various programmes direct us to necessity in opening of the discussion and follow-up of suicides.

Key words: Religion – Ethics – Suicide – Euthanasia


  1. Avdibegović E (1997) Social and Psychiatric Analysis of Suicide and Attempts in Suicide on the Tuzla region. Master Thesis at the Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University (Mentor Prof. PhD SCI O.Sinanović)
  2. Aldridge D (1998) Suicide: The Tragedy of Hopelessness. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
  3. Baume P, O’Malley E, Bauman A (1995) Professed Religious Affiliation and Practice of Euthanasia. J Med Ethics 21 (1): 49-54.
  4. Churchill LR, King NMP (1997) Physician Assisted Suicide, Euthanasia, or Withdrawal of Treatment. BMJ 315: 137-138.

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.



Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina


The work shows therapeutic value in prayer through improvement and connection of functions of physical and spiritual characteristics of person who prays. Influence of kinesiologic and physiologic influence of physical activity during the prayer is especially directed to neurological, muscular and skeleton mechanisms, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, abdominal organs and the psyche of the person who prays. Regular praying of 5 daily prayers is beneficial to the soul through meditation and praying (zikr and dova) while one does rather useful movements (one and a half hour a day of physical activity). Cleansing of body maintains the person’s body in the state of perfect cleanness. It is known that hydro-reaction of our body to the cold water has physiological effect in the sense of increase of the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes, quantity of haemoglobin and that it stimulates sensitive and motor nerves and transversal streaked musculature. It also decreases tiredness; in fact it increases mental and physical ability of a person. The paper explains kinesiologic interpretation of certain movements during the prayer (nijjet, kijjam, ruku, sedžda, tešehhud, predavanje selama). Influence of physical activity on neurological, muscular and skeleton mechanisms is of a great significance – it increases and maintains higher mobility in limbs, improves the strength of muscles and general fitness and nutrition of the tissue and it improves general oxidation processes in the whole body. Local circulation of the blood is increased for 10-20 times, pulse for 2-3 times and it also increases circulation of the blood in the brain. It increases systole volume of the lungs, improves metabolism of fat and sugar, improves peristaltic of gastric-intestinal organs and the metabolism of urine is also better. Physical activity assists elimination of temporary created pathologic reflexes. Spiritual energy before, during and after the prayer harmonises all three functions; spiritual, mental and physical. The paper shows that Islam as a religion pays great deal of attention to physical and psychical education and fitness of population through the prayer.

Key words: Therapeutic Dimensions – Prayer – Physical Activity - Spirituality


  1. Korkut B (1989) Kur'an with Translation, Leadership of the Islam Community Sarajevo: Izdavačka djelatnost EL-KALEM
  2. Karaikavić E (1986) Kinesis Therapy. Sarajevo: Svjetlost OOUR Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredsiva.
  3. Puljo J (1983) Harmony of Body and Soul Beograd: Sportska knjiga

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.


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Centre for Mental Health in the Community of the Outpatient Clinic Tuzla, Cantonal


Institute for Health Protection, Psychiatric Clinic, University Clinical centre of the Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Psychosocial consequences of the past war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and numerous and various, depending on population structure and other factors. During the war, there was an effort to make an evaluation of the influence of the war trauma on behaviour of adolescents in relation to their obligations in the school, ways of using their free time, consumption of alcohol, smoking, model of identification and acceptance of oneself. The example was consisted of students of the Electro-technical High School and they were randomly chosen. Analyse was done on a group of 164 students before the war, in 1991; and on another group of 174 students after the war, in December 1996. For the evaluation of their stands and according to defined problem, structured questionnaire was applied in both groups, where in the second group we used modified version of the impact of event scale. Out of 174, 75 had symptoms of war trauma. Adolescents of the first evaluated group had given much better results in education, compared to the other group. It was noted that the second group was more likely to use alcohol and the model of identification in parents was more frequent than in the first group. No significant differences were noted in the issues of smoking and use of free time.

Key words; War – Adolescents – Success in School – Alcohol –

Model of Identification


  1. Husain SA, Cantwell DP (1991) Fundamentals of Child and Adolescent
  2. Psychopatology. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

  3. Wilson J, Keane T (eds) (1997) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD: A

Handbook of Clinical, Medical and Legal Practitioners. New York: Guiford Press

6 International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 –5,1999


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Faculty for Special Education of the Tuzla University, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and


Herzegovina, Faculty for Education and Rehabilitation of the Zagreb University, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia


Stutter presents a serious disturbance for every individual in the inter-personal communication and it limits him or her in normal functioning. No matter the fact that aetiology of stutter is still unknown, the majority of authors agrees that existence and development of this speaking disturbance is influenced by various emotional, psychological and social factors. It is known that stutter is in co-relation with social movements. Having in mind war disasters, which the Bosnian children and adolescents have been through, this research wanted to evaluate the influence of war conditions on stutter and also what is the frequency of it within the evaluated population. 2143 children were examined in the pre-schools and the frequency was 1,31%. 11661 children were examined in the primary school and we found the frequency of 1,11 $. 2709 adolescents were examined in the secondary schools and we found the frequency of 0,70%. All in total, we examined 16513 children and adolescents and we found that the total frequency was 1,1%. Analysis of amnesiac data submitted by the parents, has given that the most frequent causes and conditions for stutter within the examined population were war trauma, inheritance, fear of something, physical trauma, family-based conflicts, separation of children from parents, jealousy on siblings, and unknown reasons. Strength of stutter has been tested with Riley test on all examined cases. Results of the research have shown a possibility that the war trauma has influenced the stutter, which addresses the need for further research of these children and adolescents through relevant tests for determination of trauma and appliance of suitable therapeutic procedures. Research has also contributed to timely discovery, registration and diagnosis for children with stutter problem and their timely involvement into rehabilitation treatments.

Key words: Stutter – Frequency – Causes – Circumstances of War


  1. Brestovci B (1986) Stutter. Zagreb: Fakultet za defektologiju
  2. Salihović N (1998) Stutter of Children and Adults. Master Thesis. Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University. (Mentor: Prof. PhD SCI Behlul Brestovci)

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.



Psychiatric Clinic, University Clinical Centre Tuzla,

Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Religious people generally consider that practising of a religion has positive effects on psychical health. Up today’s, rather small number of researches treating this problem presents only an introduction into a serious scientific elaboration of this significant statement. The main goal of this research is to determine the relation between Islamic way of living and psychical stability of soldiers during the war. The case featured 100 of soldiers of the Army of BiH who had directly participated in the war activities during the past aggression over BiH, from 1992 to 1995. All examinees were male Bosniaks of Islamic religion. They were divided into two groups; experimental and controlling ones. The experimental group was consisted of 50 soldiers who regularly practised the religion in five prayers a day. The other group was consisted of 50 soldiers who did not practise religion in the same way. Methods used for the research were psychometric ones, questionnaires and statistical methods. Psychometric method has evaluated structure of personality in three segments – emotional profile, defensive direction and disposition for development of personality. Questionnaires assisted in identification of cases, having in mind social status and way of living, as well as evaluation of their spiritual profile through religious background by birth and by their personal decision; religious education and upbringing; and place and role of religion in the life and stability of the system of faith. T-test and Hi-square test were used as statistic methods. They determined significance of achieved results among the groups in the case. Achieved results show that Islamic way of living has a positive influence on psychical health and stability of a person. It influences changes in structure of personal features of individuals, defensive directions and structure of neurotic dimensions of a person. It supports psychical development, expands healthier states and narrows the other ones. It also provides emotional stability, ability to control basic impulses, develops moral and ethical values, social adaptability and affirms creativity of an educated, developed and a person of potentials.

Key words: Psychical Stability – War – Islam – Prayer


  1. El-Azayem GA (1995) The psychological Aspects of Islam. Mental peace 1 (IV), 14-18.
  2. Pajević I (1999) Islamic Way of Living as a Factor of Psychical Stability. Master Thesis, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, (Mentor Prof. PhD SCI O.Sinanović)
  3. Wilson JP, Moran TA (1997) Assessing Psychological Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the Context of Spirituality. In: Wilson JP, Keane T (eds.): A Handbook for Clinical, Medical, and Legal Practitioners. New York: Guilford Press
  4. Koenig HG (ed) (1998) Handbook of Religion and Mental Health. San Diego: Academic Press

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.




Muslim Secondary School of Behrambeg Tuzla, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina


This paper presents an overview of some Emissary’s a.s. methods of protection of human’s health, both physical and mental. There is no doubt that one of the fundamental tasks of the Last God’s Emissary was to preserve the human health. Only a person who is physically and mentally healthy can conduct certain duties of Islam; in other words – can accept its duties and bear responsibilities for its actions. Therefore, it is understandably why did the Emissary a.s. placed a lot of effort in directing people to methods of protection of their health, and how to help themselves in the case of illness. His methods and means of his medicine should be seen in the spirit of time in which he lived. His directions in this sense will be the topic of research of scientists from various fields of work; especially the psychologists and psychiatrists. This paper is especially focused on goals, means and nature of the Emissary’s medicine, as well as the fundamental principles on which it was based.

Key words: Emissary’s Medicine – Islam – Health


  1. Karić E (1995) Kur’an with Translation into Bosnian Language Sarajevo: Bosanska knjiga.
  2. Hamidullah M (1983) Muhammed a.s., tom 2. Djelo. Sarajevo: Starješinstvo IZ u BiH, Hrvatskoj i Sloveniji.

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.




Islamic Community in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Muslim Secondary School of Behrambeg Tuzla, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina


In order to preserve and improve ones psychical health, the human puts many efforts that sometimes result in good and sometimes in bad outcomes. This mostly depends on methods used during such practice. This paper presents only five out of a great number of methods offered by Islam, for the purpose of bringing one into psychical stability and balance and especially within the environment that leads to disturbance of such stability through its relation towards the world.

  1. Strengthening of fundamental truths of faith
  2. Persistence in practical duties given in the fundaments of belief
  3. Practising of additional activities that are not strictly obligatory by Islam
  4. Control over communication with others, control of speech, nutrition and sleeping
  5. Watchful control over own psychical balance, timely discovery of symptoms that violate its timely elimination

This paper will focus on the fourth phase, which understands that every person is continuously watching its behaviour and develops capabilities of self-control that is necessary for prevention of unhealthy and bad habits and development of mature forms of behaviour and a healthy way of living.


Key words: Islam – Control over Communication – Control of Speech – Control of Nutrition – Control of Sleeping – Psychical Health


1. Karić E (1995) Kur’an with Translation into Bosnian. Sarajevo: Bosanska knjiga.

  1. Hawwa S (1988) Tarbijatuna ar-ruhijja. Kairo: Daru-l-islam
  2. Isa-Abdul-Kadir J (1998) Thruths of tesavvufu (translation – Mešić A). Tuzla: Odbor Islamske zajednice

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.


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Outpatient Clinic Tuzla, Psychiatric Clinic, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina


The war presents a rather difficult traumatic experience leading to various losses, separation of people, their injuries and difficult physical and psychical suffering of the whole population. An extremely difficult position is the one of children. This paper shows results of a research that has a goal in determination of a possibility how to reduce war trauma on pre-school children and their mothers with the assistance of organised psychosocial support. Applied forms of psychosocial assistance were continued education of teachers in the fields of development psychology and war trauma, counselling with mothers through individual approach and work in smaller groups, counselling assistance of psychologists to the teachers through every-day talks. Organised psychosocial treatment took ten months. There were three examined groups with 32 refugee children age 6-7 and their mothers in each, where all participants were randomly chosen. The first group was made of children from a kindergarten with organised psychosocial assistance. The second group featured children from a kindergarten without such assistance, while the third group featured children who were not going to any kindergarten and who had no kind of organised support. The reviewed Questionnaire on Trauma and its Symptoms for Evaluation of Trauma on Children, as well as the Scale for Evaluation of Stressful Events for mothers (PTSS-10) were used for the research. The tests were completed before the start of the treatment, half way through the treatment and at the end of it. The founded results showed that a significantly larger reduction of symptoms existed with the children who were present at the kindergarten with organised psychosocial assistance in comparison with the other two groups. There was also a significant decrease of trauma symptoms on their mothers in comparison to mothers of the other two groups. The worst situation was seen at the group of children and their mothers, who were not receiving any kind of organised psychosocial assistance – the third groups of children who were not going to kindergartens.

Key words: War – Trauma – Children – Mothers – Psychosocial Support


  1. Ajduković D (1995) Psychosocial Assistance to Children – Why do they need such assistance? U: Ajduković D (urednik): Programi psihosocijalne pomoći prognanoj i izbjegloj djeci. Zagreb: Društvo za psihološku pomoć, 5-6.
  2. Ćatić B, Sinanović O, Pašagić I (1996) Traumatic reactions of children in a Tuzla orphanage. The Book of Abstracts of the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress in Emergency Services, Peacekeeping Operations and Humanitarian Aid Organisations, Sheffield, England, p.8.

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.


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1 2

The Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Psychiatric Clinic, University Clinical Centre, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina


The past aggression over Bosnia and Herzegovina has resulted in great destruction within various fields of everyday life of all categories of the population. An extremely difficult time faced those who defended the country, who experienced large personal losses, physical and psychical trauma. This paper analyses a group of thirty war veterans with amputated extremities who were disposed to both physical and psychical trauma and had not had clearly exposed symptoms of the PTSD and they never came for psychological assistance – group A. Another group is a group of 51 war veterans who had not had a physical handicap, but had come for psychological assistance due to psychical problems – group B. Both groups were similar according to the age background and profession, but they differ in the field of marital status. The group A featured more single men, while group B had more married ones. The analysis used the Questionnaire of Trauma, Plučik’s Index of Emotions, Questionnaire of Defensive Mechanisms and Stile of Living, and MMPI. Within the group A, we determined an average of six traumatic experiences and relatively low level of stress. The group B showed seven traumatic experiences and a very high level of stress at 50% of the participants. Both groups had a large percentage of complete or partial posttraumatic stress disorder – group A with 73% and group B with 88%. The results of the applied psychometric research could not explain the hidden PTSD in the group A. The group A had shown emphasised denial and not accepting of evidential physical handicap. Namely, 40% of the participants in this group thought that they were able to conduct the same tasks as they had done before, which was significantly different to the opinion of the Expertise Committee that has evaluated such case of ability at only 13% of the participants.

Key words: War Trauma – Amputation - PTSD


  1. Sutović A (1996) Clinical and Psycho-diagnostic Characteristics of Soldiers with PTSD, Master Thesis, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University. (Mentor: Prof. PhD SCI O.Sinanović)
  2. Pavlović S (1998) Psychical Disorder of Soldiers during the War. , Master Thesis, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University. (Mentor: Prof. PhD SCI O.Sinanović)
  3. Wilson J, Keane T (eds) (1997) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD: A Handbook for Clinical, Medical and Legal Practitioners. New York: Guiford Press

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.


1 2


1 2

Home for Unaccompanied Minors, Psychiatric Clinic, University Clinical Centre, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina


The whole population and especially children and civilians were exposed to a long lasting and multiple traumas during the past aggression over Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a consequence of psychological trauma on children, the symptomatology of a wide range is developed and it is predominated by posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive reactions. Unaccompanied minors have significant difficulties in the time of peace and those become more complex in the conditions of war. This paper analyses the effect of organised psychosocial treatment on the level of trauma on eighty refugee children accommodated in the Home for Unaccompanied Minors, and 80 other refugee children who lived with the survived members of their families, but without any organised psychosocial treatment. We used the URT recording of traumatic experience, Birleson’s Scale of Self-evaluation for Determination of the Depression Symptoms and Impact of Event Scale. Both groups of children were previously tested, as soon as their arrived, and before starting of the psychosocial treatment for the children in the Home. They were all also re-tested after one year. Organised psychosocial activities have lead to significant reduction of symptoms of avoiding, intrusiveness and depression at refugee children in the Home. The refugee children living with their families or in refugee camps with no organised psychosocial treatment, have only slightly decreased the symptom of avoiding, but no decrease was seen in intrusiveness and depression.

Key words: Unaccompanied Minors – Refugees – War Trauma – Possibility of Recovery


  1. Ćatić B, Sinanović O, Pašagić I (1996) Traumatic reactions of children in a Tuzla orphanage. The Book of Abstracts of the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress in Emergency Services, Peacekeeping Operations and Humanitarian Aid Organisations, Sheffield, England, p.8.
  2. Ćatić B (1998) Traumatic Reactions and Possibility of Recovery for Children Exposed to War Activities. Master Thesis, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University. (Mentor: Prof. PhD SCI O.Sinanović)
  3. Husain SA, Cantwell DP (1991) Fundamentals of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.



Mohammad Farouk EL-SENDIONY

The American University in Cairo


This paper suggests a great need for scientific study to elucidate the transition from individual traumatic story to dysfunction of a community. Posttraumatic community impairment is its own entity. It is defined by the disruption in cultural norms, in the sense of collective past, present and future, and in the very expectation of social order, in communities suffering the trauma of war, deprivation and forced displacement. The key to returning to meaningful community life lies in learning how to repair the frayed community fabric.

Key words: Posttraumatic Community Impairment – War

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.




Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Missouri – Columbia, Columbia, MO, USA


The two words – grief counselling and trauma counselling – are increasingly converging. This is partially due to the occurrence of large-scale natural disasters and wars, which affect the lives of many; increasing levels of violence in our industrialised society; and advances in life-saving and supportive medical technologies. Deaths are often sudden, violent, and unexpected, or sometimes proceeded by lengthy and exhausting periods. Counsellors are being seen by an increased number of persons experiencing traumatised grief responses due to the nature of the loved ones’ deaths, necessitating a larger repertoire off effective interventions. The Genogram is a useful tool in helping understand traumatic grief responses, and the "power therapies" are effective techniques in dealing with the "traumatic aspects" that interfere with mourning.

Key words: Trauma – Grief – Genogram

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.




Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Columbia,

Columbia, MO, USA


Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) is a form of psychological intervention done after a critical incident in which people are killed or severely injured. It was originally developed to help prevent traumatic stress in emergency service personnel who were faced with disasters that were beyond what they are prepared to deal with. Fire departments, law enforcement agencies, hospitals and other public emergency service personnel have done this as a standard procedure. It has been found to be helpful with any population including children. In the presentation the theory and training will be discussed. We will also go over the topics that are covered during the debriefing.

Key words: Critical Incident - Stress – Debriefing


  1. Anderson W, Swenson D, Clay D (1995) Stress Management for Law Enforcement Officers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.



Medžlis of Islamic Community in Mostar, 88000 Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

This paper discusses the role of mosque as the central religious institution in which the community of believers gathers. The role of the mosque is multiple, and the author focuses on its influence on the psyche of people who come into it and participate in various activities of it. Among other, the author also gives overview of the education in mekteb and upbringing of children with a target placed on human behaviour. The role of Friday prayer and ability of the priest, as well as burial prayer, during which all prayers of the religious community specifically face the reality of the death of their close relatives and other persons in their lives. All religious customs are collectively practised in the mosque and its completion the author clearly expresses the strength of the religion and strengthening of the spirit of people who belong to the community of believers.

Key words: Mosque – Education in Mekteb – Friday Prayer – Burial Prayer – Psyche – Islam


  1. Zuhajli V (1989) Fikh. Damask
  2. Terzić I. (1999) Kur’an in Bosnia and Herzegovina since the arrival of it until today. Doctor Thesis, Zejtuna University of Tunis.

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.


Barry JAY

World Federation for Mental Health

Walled Lake, Michigan, USA

A new technique has been spread in clinical practice of the treatment of traumatised individuals over the last decade. Formal studies are underway exploring the efficacy of this technique, but anecdotal evidence suggests that it can be extremely useful in the treatment of trauma. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) utilises the stimulation of acupuncture meridian points while thinking of the traumatic incident and performing a number of tasks, which stimulate left and right hemispheres of brain function. A manual describing this technique will be distributed and practised. Various theories about the why in which this technique is operational will be briefly reviewed. Specific advantages of this technique are that the patient does not have to re-experience the trauma, and that the technique offers the clinician a tool that does not rely solely on language, but utilises both left and right brain functioning. Incorporation of its use with other therapeutic modalities will be discussed. Indications for use will be reviewed.


Key words: Emotional Freedom Technique – Trauma – Acupuncture

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.


Syed Arshad HUSAIN

Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65212, USA

To study the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents exposed to the siege conditions in Sarajevo in relationship to their gender, age, loss of family members, the perceived need of the essentials of daily living such as food, shelter, water and clothes and exposure to shooting. In April of 1994 the author went to Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and collected data on 791 children (ages 6-15) in a district’s school. The scales included Children Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Impact of Event Inventory and a general information questionnaire. All scales were translated into Bosnian language and retranslated into English by an independent translator for accuracy. To meet the DSM IV criteria, the two scales were combined for analysis. Chi-square analyses and Wilcoxin signed rank tests were used for analysis. Girls reported significantly more symptoms than boys in both re-experiencing did, as well as avoidance items. There was no difference in the earlier and later age groups in the percentage of individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress symptoms. Loss of family members was associated with significantly more re-experiencing, avoidance, depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder. Need of food, water, clothes and shelter was associated with more symptoms. Contrary to expectations, the experience of sniper shooting did not relate to more symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. On base of the results it was concluded that youngsters who lost family members or experienced basic deprivation had more PTSD than those who did not. The unique conditions in Sarajevo may be the reason for the result that exposure to sniper and shooting was not associated with more symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.

Key words: Siege conditions – Children – Sarajevo – PTSD – Depressive symptoms

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.



University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65 212, USA


The literature has shown that children who live in war zones are at risk for PTSD and Depression. However these data have often been collected some years after the ending of military conflict or after the children have left their country. This study examines the prevalence and comorbidity of PTSD and Depression while children were still under siege in Sarajevo. In April of 1994 the author went to Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and collected data on 791 children (ages 6-15) of one school district. The scales included Children Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Impact of Event Scale and Children’s Behaviour Checklist – Teacher’s Form, Depression Inventory and the General Information Questionnaire. All scales were translated into Bosnian language and retranslated into English by an independent translator for accuracy. To meet the DSM IV criteria, the two scales were combined for analysis. Chi square analyses and Wilcoxin signed rank tests were used for analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance yielded significant findings for age difference for both PTS Reactions (p<0,0001) and depressive symptoms (p<001) with older children experiencing more symptoms. Chi square analyses revealed that clinical significant levels of PTS and depressive reaction were significantly related (p<0,001) of the 297 children with clinically significant PTS reactions. 18,2% also showed clinically significant depressive symptoms and of the 80 children with clinically significant depressive symptoms. 67,5% also had clinically significant PTS reaction (Superman Correlation of PTS and Depressive symptoms, p<0,0001). Conclusion: Exposure to war trauma were significant related to both PTS and Depressive Symptomathology. Older children were more likely to manifest both PTS and Depressive symptoms.

Key words: War trauma – PTSD – Depression – Prevalence

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13- 15, 1999.



Islamic Community in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Muslim Secondary School of Behrambeg, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

The paper presents indivisibility of key determinants of the human being, knowledge and upbringing, which can give the right life orientation to a man, only in its complementary role. The call of Islam to the man on learning is explicitly emphasised, but at the same time it determines the significance of a noble goal which is reached through knowledge. The one, who receives knowledge, has been gifted by the immeasurable good – it is the message of the Last Heavenly Book. Still, the true success will come only to those who preserves its soul clean. Modern scientists, who focus on mental health of the people, stand for the new approach, which has to respect dimensions of human mind and soul to a large extend.

Key words: Knowledge – Upbringing – Synthesis - Islam


  1. Karić E (1995) Kur’ans with Translation into Bosnian, Sarajevo
  2. Smailagić N (1990) Lexicon of Islam, Sarajevo
  3. Goleman D (1997) Emotional Intelligence, Zagreb

The Text of the Speech by the

President of Tuzlanski Kanton Dr. Tarik Arapčić

Addressing the Participants of the 6th International Congress

of the World Islamic Association for Mental Health


Respected Ladies and Gentlemen. It is my pleasure to be addressing you in the occasion of this rather important international gathering of intellects, spirituality of good will and hope for a brighter future of the people of the whole world.

The 20th century has gone deeply into wars, ecological disaster, and loss of fundamental moral values and crises of originality. I am glad to see that at the end of such century, a group of enthusiasts – serious experts in the field of mental health and religious issues – has gained inspiration to organise a high international inter-disciplinary gathering in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its goal is to take the wails of prejudices off two taboos of the 20th century – Mental Health and the Role of Healthy Religiousness in the Life of Modern Humankind.

We are the witnesses of disasters and horrors all over the world. The international community has a difficulty in confronting them and its control over them is under question while being held within positivistic and materialistic mental and practical orientations.

The scientists have been trying to find a way out during the last decade of the 20th century, through revalorization of spirituality and mental health. They have also been trying to demystify – using scientific methods – the practical role and significance of faith and mental health for protection of a human, its social and ecological environment from the deep destruction.

Over the last nine years, we in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Tuzlanski Kanton and in the town of Tuzla have stood up to defend the light of our future generations – to give an example to the whole world that the lie could not take over the truth, evil could not win over the good, and that the dark could not replace the light, except only temporarily. Our drama was witnessed by many together with us. Some of those are the members of the World Islamic Association for Mental Health, founded in Vienna in 1983. The main goal of this action was to offer an alternative in the holistic approach to improvement of the mental well being of people all over the world.

This 6th International Congress of the Organisation is taking place in our environment, because we have deserved – through our positive efforts – to host the people of high specialities and ethical directions so that they can share experiences, achievements, efforts and hopes with our experts.

I strongly believe that this gathering will produce significant achievements in the field of planned scientific and religious spheres, which will be discussed in the spirit of scientific and researching implementation of this project. I also invite all interested in this fair to take place and expand the final goal of this planetary manifestation.

I invite all people, no matter their religious background or any other differences on any biological or social fundament, to find their place among us here in Tuzla, in Tuzlanski Kanton, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Europe and in the whole planet.

We believe that we will be responsible for all our actions to our Sublime Creator, who is satisfied when we gather for the sake of Science, Welfare, Truth and Salvation and therefore He gives generous rewards in this temporary world, as well as in the eternal one.

May there be the Peace, Salvation and the God’s Mercy and Blessing for all of us.

6t International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.


Vladimir PREMEC

Faculty of Philosophy of the Sarajevo University, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

In the year of 1945, a change of authority system happened in the area of former Yugoslavia. I have memorised all traumatic contents that had marked my childhood. The underlined is the aura of HOLINESS. Scorning of religion by the regime, destruction of religious symbols – crosses and chapels built by the road in my home place, humiliation of the priests and the PHENOMENON in forbiddance to believe in different forms of repression have lethally influenced the consciousness and the awareness of the inhabitants in the village where I was born. Mental health of the people who were directly elected by the government to take part in atheistic stigmatisation of that time, is known to me through preaches and my personal experience. It is my intention to DESCRIBE and present this problem as a witness of time.


Key words: Holiness – Phenomenon of Forbiddance – Right to Believe

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.



Assembly of the Islamic Community in Vienna, Austria

It is known that due to political and religious motives or prejudices of European Authors, the contribution of Muslims in various fields of science and their influence on the float of human civilisation, are not adequately represented in the scientific and expertise literature.

Contribution of Muslims to the medical science is largely known as an integral part within the frame of holistic influence of Arabic-Islamic civilisation on development and definition of the today’s, so-called Western Civilisation. With no pretension to discover new facts, the Author has given his overview on this problem in the paper. The goal of it is to briefly show and remind that the modern European medicine and pharmacology would not have been what they are without brave effort and unselfish commitment of numerous Arabic-Islamic scientists and physicians, theoreticians and actors of four generations. The paper gives brief overview of Arabic-Islamic physicians’ influence on development of medicine on our territory, based on the research by Dr Lavoslav Glazinger. Using the methodology of Dr Muhammed Kamil Husein, which underlines periodicity, it extracts four periods of development in the medical thought and practice, and pharmacology - the periods of own experience; rationalistic order of experiences; of analysing; and experimenting. The largest space is given to great physicians – Ar-Razi and Ibn Sina (Avicena) – their capital pieces of clinical practice and medical systematisation. The author relays to medical encyclopaedia, the work of Al-Razi "Al Havi" (lat. "Contiens"), as well as the work of Ibn Sina "Al Tibb Al Kanun", which is known in Europe as Kanon. At the end of the paper, literature for university medicine, clinical medicine, influence of Az-Zehravi on European surgery and the concept of the hospital are underlined. The latest one has not been overcome until now, and it is the same with the knowledge of medicines and drugs – which has been used as a fundament of pharmacology as such.

Key words: Arabic-Islamic – Contribution – Medicine – Al-Razi – Ibn Sina – Avicena – Bimaristan


  1. Husejn MK (1987) Influence in Medicine and Pharmacology, In: Arabic-Islamic Influence on European Renaissance. Grupa autora. Sarajevo. Str. 181- 202.

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.


1 2


1 2

Theological Faculty of the Lund University in Sweden, Psychiatric Clinic, University Clinical Centre, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina


Holistic and in detail developed system of the personality development and phases of its mature have been discussed in the Islamic discipline called Tesavvuf. Personality development in Tesavvuf has its goal in improvement of its characteristics, control over its instincts, replacement of bad characteristics with good ones, and correct relation toward oneself and its surrounding. The majority of Tesavvuf scientists settle the way to achievement of full maturity in seven fundamental phases.

  1. Soul that is disposed to evil
  2. Soul that reprimands itself
  3. Inspired soul
  4. Calm soul
  5. Satisfied soul
  6. Soul with whom the God is satisfied, and
  7. Fully advanced soul.

Overcoming all of the given phases, one achieves a level of maturity and ability for competent upbringing and education of others, showing them the way of achievement of self-completion and psychical well being.

Key words: Personality Development – Islam – Tesavvuf


  1. Hažibajrić F (1974) Tesavvuf-Tarikat Poem by Abdullaha Bošnjask. Anali Gazi Husrev-begove biblioteke, knjiga II-III: 21-32.
  2. Areb NM (1985) Risalei-Salihijje (translated by Hadžibajrić F). Sarajevo: Islamska misao
  3. Isa Abdul-Kadir (1998) Truths of Tesavvuf (translated by Mešić A). Tuzla: Odbor Islamske zajednice
  4. Pajević I (1999) Islamic Way of Living as a Factor of Psychical Stability. Master Thesis, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, (Mentor Prof. PhD SCI O. Sinanović)

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.



Clinic for Lung Illnesses and Tuberculosis, Clinical centre, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

The project for this paper is attentive towards the aspect of psychosocial destruction of a family in forced migration. The research was done over two groups of displaced families and their members coming from Brčko and Srebrenica. The controlling group of domicile population was from the area of Gornja Tuzla. 364 families with 1165 family members were examined and interviewed in total. The group of domicile population featured 150 families with 528 family members. 8% of families within the displaced population group had one killed member of the family. It also had 5% more of single persons. 10% of families within the displaced families group had one killed member of the family. There are 5% more of single persons and 10% more of widowed and divorced persons within the DP group in comparison to the domicile population group. Subjective feeling of health problems is for 20% higher at the DP group. Social insecurity was measured by unemployment and it absolutely dominates within the DP group. More than 25% of the migration population and 20% of domiciles had never felt "full of life". The feeling of neurosis gains in progression and it is mostly expressed at the age group between 55 and 64 years of age – 40%. The same is with the feeling of depression, which dominates at the DP population in the age groups from 35 to 64 years of age. A number of disturbances in age, gender, psychosocial and biological structures of the families in forced migration were determined.

Key words: Forced Migration – Destruction of Family – Health Situation – Mental Health – Domicile Population


  1. Jamakosmanović S (1999) Health Aspects of Social, Demographic and Biological Destruction of Family in Forced Migration. Master Thesis. Faculty of Medicine of the Sarajevo University.
  2. Loga S. Psychosocial Aspects of the War in BiH – Health Related Social Consequences of the War in BiH., publ, 5 Zavod za zdravstvenu zaštitu BiH.
  3. Smaga D, Archinard M, Savary PA (1995) Les etats de stress post-traumatiques (PTSD) en medicine. Med Hyg 53:936-42.
  4. Berkanović E (1980) The Effect of Inadequate Language Translation on Hispanics, response to health surveys. Am J Public Health 70: 1273-81.
  5. Mandić N, Bosnić Đ (1993) Psychological State of the Croatian refugees in the Republic of Hungary, Croat Med J 33 (War Suppl 2): 106-109.
  6. Moro Lj (1991) Psychical Disturbances of Displaced Persons. Social Psychiatry 4: 335-345.

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.



Institute for Health Protection in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 71 000 Sarajevo,

Bosnia and Herzegovina

The author gives a serial of a part of positive and negative characteristics – personal features of Bosnian people – with the emphasis on Bosniaks, Muslims in correlation with social, health and especially somatic and mental disturbances. The paper presents similarities and differences of Bosnians and their personalities – personal features – in association with health (mental and somatic), the tradition of people, and numerous crisis situations, which have been exchanging throughout the time between the wars and natural disasters. The paper is dominated by the span and comparison of positive and negative characters – personalities – with the quality of mental health and especially during various social temptations and crisis. The paper has a character of social, psychiatric and psychological discussion illustrated with original examples of the practice from the past war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Key words: Personalities – Characters – Illnesses of Addiction – Fear – Stress – Mental Health


  1. Isaković A (1993) Anthology of Evil, Hospital – Sarajevo, Lubljana
  2. Loga S (1997) Psychosocial Aspects of War in BiH. Pub. 5. Health and Social Consequences of War in BiH. Sarajevo: Svjetlost i Škola Narodnog Zdravlja
  3. Musabegović N (1997) Rural-urban Antagonisms and Modern World. Sarajevo: FEB/Svjetlost
  4. Nikolić S. i sur (1996) Fundaments of Family Therapy – Support of Mental Health in the Family. Zagreb: Medicinska naklada
  5. Smajkić A i sur (1997) Health and Social Consequences of the War in BiH – suggestion for sanction. 5. Izdanje. Sarajevo: Svjetlost i Škola Narodnog zdravlja
  6. Smajkić A i Ramić A (1997) Early and Late Health and Social Consequences of the War in BiH. Sarajevo: Svjetlost d.d. i Škola Narodnog zdravlja Sarajevo

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.


Michael PULLIS

Department of Special Education, University of Missouri – Columbia,

Columbia, Missouri, USA

Session examines a bi-directional or multi-faceted model of exposure to traumatic violence. Reactions to violence, such as PTSD, can be viewed as interfering influences in academic learning and social interactions in a school setting. Schools can also give an influence on the development of violent behaviour as a result of frustration, aggression or alienation from peers or teachers. Comprehensive school-wide and community-wide efforts are needed in terms of both, prevention and intervention models.


Key words: Traumatic violence – Children – Learning environment

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.


Mohammad I. PIRACHA and Abubakr A. DABAHDAH

Ministry of Health, Western Region Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Mental illnesses, as we know, have become more of a social-medical problem. Somewhere and somehow these mental illnesses are a subject of moral discussion. In this paper we have discussed many facts of prevention, treatment, long term management and rehabilitation. There is still a lot of publicity and discussion internationally – especially in the Third World. Rapid changes have taken place in some regions of Europe. This region particularly is one of the most affected regions – the Balkans. Then comes the good reason to help this category the basic treatment models are discussed. Multi-factor approaches are mentioning the role of information media that has dealt with problems and solutions as explained. Information media has the number one role to keep the nations in efforts to help the needed awareness of the facilities available for those who need psychiatric services. Volunteers, be they doctors, or para-physicians, all participate in such humanitarian crisis. NGO’s can play a co-ordinating role in this hour of need.

Key words: Mental illnesses – Prevention – Long term management

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.


Osama Mohammad Al-RADI

Ex-President, World Islamic Association for Mental Health, Saudi Arabia


The centre of the Islamic approach to therapy is the role of the Mosque. In the Mosque a Moslem goes for Prayers five times a day where he offers his Prayers with the group. Before offering his Prayers, a Moslem has to perform Ablution by washing his face, forearms, hands and feet with clean water, giving him a sense of moral purification as well as physical cleanliness, as he feels that God forgives his sins after performing Ablution. Due to offering Prayers five times a day in the Mosque, a Moslem feels in close intimate contact with God from Whom he may ask for purification and forgiveness for whatever sins he may have committed before. After that, a Moslem feels relieved from the burden of his sins by the Grace of God. In Islam, the relationship between God and each Moslem is a direct personal one. No intermediate agent is conceived in between. Feelings of guilt and the self-approach can be greatly reduced in this direct relation with God. In addition to that, going to the Mosque five times daily strengthens the social relations between Moslems, as they meet each other five times daily and know the circumstances of each other and therefore help each other. This gives a large measure of social support in case of personal difficulties. Islamic Group Therapy, which is a combination of Islamic religious principles and compatible western group therapeutic techniques, have been developed and practised with success in the Mosque. The goals of the Islamic Group Therapy are as follows.

  1. Curing symptoms;
  2. Defeating feelings of loneliness;
  3. Changing of behaviour through conscious control of the patient with the help of a group;
  4. Correct adaptation
  5. Personality growth and promoting of inner consciousness and releasing of personal gifts and abilities;
  6. The ultimate goal is to form a central idea based on the Islamic principles and values for every member of the group and for the group as a whole in a way that gives this central idea a strong power of attraction, which that makes other activities of the individuals move around it.


Key words: Mosque – Mental health – Group Therapy

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.



1Psychiatric Clinic, University Clinical Centre, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 2Centre for Psychosocial Documentation and Evaluation,3 Cantonal Institute for Public Health – Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla University, 4 Psychological Centre, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

The authors of this paper present results of researches over exposition of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and effects of psychosocial assistance with children. The existence, time of appearance, way of experiencing of a traumatic experience and exposure of PTSD symptoms has been determined. The method used structural interview, PTSD questionnaire for children and the Scale of Evaluation of Children’s Engagement in the Group Work. The programme of psychosocial protection has included displaced and domicile children in the age from 7 to 11 and from 12 to 16. Girls were significantly more present than the boys (p<0,005). The applied therapeutic methods gave significant impact on increased readiness to talk (p<0,005). The time confirms that the effect of methodological steps and therapeutic treatment with children is successful and applicable in the future activities.


Key words: Rat – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder – Children– Treatment


  1. Sinanović O (1995) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. WHO, Regional Office for Europe, Tuzla Field Office, Mental Health Unit.
  2. Husain SA, Holcomb WR (1994) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. U: Manual for Counselling Centres. University of Missouri, SAD, with the permission of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Published in war.
  3. Foy DW (1994) Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Cognitive Behavioural Procedures Jastrebarsko: Naklada Slap
  4. Ajduković M (1995) Planning and Ways of Group Work in the Conditions of Collective Refugee Accommodation. U: Ajduković D (ur). Programme of Psychosocial Assistance to Refugee and Displaced Children. Zagreb: Društvo za psihološku pomoć, 83 – 98.
  5. Herbert M (1996) Post – Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children. Lecester: BPS Books

6th International Congress of WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.



Clinical Centre of the Sarajevo University


The occurrence of the Last God’s Announcement has strongly inspired the medical sciences all over the Islamic World and wider. Bosnia, as the later participant in the inheritance of the Islamic Culture, is also the heir of all those innovations that were revolutionary for that time. It is not by an accident because the Islam – the philosophy that issues a whole lines of rules – has also given a whole lines of elements that have given a great contribution to the medical science, even according to the today’s standards. The author emphasises the cult of water that had lead to the development of water supply systems as such, construction of water plants, public drinking fountains, water fountains and similar. By the religious stand, the issued ways of approaching an ill person has lead to development of hospital firstly under the influence of Islam. The issues related to sanitary inspections services and which have been inaugurated in the Islamic Word with the occurrence with the New Religion, have started being implemented in Europe only 200 years ago. This makes the contribution of Islamic religion unavoidable in the development of medicine, but it is regrettably often being tacit. The religion – which issues permanent values such as ritual washing, Gussul, gymnastic through Offering of Prayers, Zekat for general well being, fasting and moderation in food and drinks, forbiddance of alcohol and all intoxicating items, Sunnet, and travelling – had to contribute to the development of general hygienic regulations and laws for which was later determined to had been founded on the knowledge of modern medical science and which were – for that time – accepted as religious postulates.

Key words: Contribution – Islam – Sanitary Inspection Service – Hospitals – Water Plants – Bosnia


  1. Arnold T (1972) History of Islam, 2nd Ed. Sarajevo: Mešihat Islamske Zajednice u BiH
  2. Elazar S (1972) Influence of Islam on the Health Culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Pro Medico - LEK 2(4): 43-54.
  3. Konjhodžić F (1991) Hospital of Vakuf (Muslims’ Charitable Hospital) and the First Brain Surgeries in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Chirurgia Neurologica 2: 4-6.
  4. Konjhodžić F (1998) Influence of Islam on Development of Health Circumstances in the World and in Bosnia. U: Mašić I.(ur): Contribution of Islamic Tradition to Development of Medical Sciences, Sarajevo: Avicena

6th International Congresse of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.




Psychiatric Clinic, Faculty of Medicine of the Sarajevo University, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

This paper is founded on the author’s experience in the group psychotherapy for raped women. The paper will present the flow of psychotherapeutic process of the group of women who were the victims of rape during the aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina. The rape of women in BiH by the aggressor was a part of the war strategy of the genocidal war. The place of Islam in our tradition is seen through the whole psychotherapeutic process. The Islam was the strongest therapeutic factor in the process of reintegration of raped women’s personality.

Key words: Raped Woman – Islam – Group Psychotherapy


  1. Selimović E (1995) Psychology of Islam. Istanbul: Timas Yayinlari
  2. Ćorić, Š.Š (1998) Psychology of Religiousness. Jastrebarsko: Naklada Slap
  3. Klain E (1999) Group Analysis – Group Analytical Psychotherapy. Zagreb: Medicinska naklada
  4. Popović Š (1999) Torture, Consequences and Rehabilitation. Sarajevo: CTV

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.



Psychiatric Clinic, Faculty of Medicine of the Sarajevo University, 71 000 Sarajevo, Bosnia i Herzegovina


The paper presents experiences from a psychotherapeutic process of a group of women with numerous war traumas and losses. All women were included in the process of rehabilitation within the project "Women in Trouble". The process of rehabilitation involved various kinds of assistance, as well as recreational activities. The main goal was to use the therapeutic potentials of a group through communication, meetings and more complex phenomenon of participation within a group. Given are the experiences from psychotherapeutic groups. The groups were of a middle size, homogenous by gender and experienced war trauma. They were limited to duration of one month. Sessions took place every other day, lasting for 90 minutes each. The groups were not open for acceptance of new members and the high cohesion of a group was preserved. The group focus was directed to trauma. We worked on remembrance and grief. Group goals were work on trauma and reintegration in the future. Islamic belief was present in all phenomenon of a group, as well as in all phases of the group process. The Islam was the basic starter and the therapeutic factor in the process of rehabilitation and reintegration of traumatised women within the community.


Key words: Traumatic Losses – Islam – Psychotherapeutic Groups


  1. Malan DH (1967) Study of Brief Psychotherapy. London: Social Science Paperbacks
  2. Herman JL (1997) Trauma and Recovery. Sarajevo: Svjetlost
  3. Klain E (1996) Group Analysis – Group Analytic Psychotherapy, Zagreb: Medicinska naklada

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.


Ljiljana MORO

Clinic of Psychiatry, KBC Rijeka, Universtity of Rijeka, 51 000 Rijeka, Croatia

Since its very beginning, the religion has had an enlightening role and a great influence on the populace. Such influence is today seen with the mass media – i.e. when one wrong information goes into ether, it is very difficult to decrease its effect. We believe that everything that passes through the filters is correct and that it is a necessity for us to hear it. The authority – some who stands behind it and who is responsible for it sent that message. The same is the perception of a priest. The priest is person whose statements are correct and confirmed, because he is the God’s person. The influence of a priest in a crisis situation is unusually important (example – Bishop Komarica). The priest in a crisis situation directs the participants toward solutions for instinctual pulsing – most often of an aggressive nature. Therefore, I wish to underline the importance of selection of people for the profession of a priest. Their influence on youth is indubitable. During that period, a final opinion of authorities and acceptance of others who are not the same. Solution of aggressive tendencies during this period of development is a model upon which one will solve aggressive tendencies in its maturity; or whether one will be able to accept those who are different; whether one will have an open door for research and findings of the world – believing that one will be accepted by the environment always as a human being. Therefore, if an adolescent enters that period with a good trust in the humankind, he or she will be better prepared to receive aggressive pulsing during the crisis period, will be able to control them and to try establishing a dialog instead of letting him or herself under the feeling of being jeopardised or under activity of regressive mechanisms of defence. Aggressive pulsing is an unavoidable part of human nature and they can be shaped during the development, according to religious and cultural fundaments of a certain environment.

Crisis and a Large Group. In every crisis, a large group means a group to which I belong and which will protect me. A religious group with a national group in a crisis situation is the most secure tent to which we run. The research by the Centre for Thoughts and Human Interactions of the Virginia University, have shown the importance of the model for resolving of rivalry within the family and that our relation towards our relatives is transmitted from one to another generation. Namely, if we are able to share our mother with our siblings with no existential jeopardy and fear for survival, then we have all possibilities to accept others with their differences during our development without being jeopardised. This is best seen in reactions we show as members of a large group. What is the significance that we give to various anniversaries and traditions of our neighbours? Do those anniversaries and traditions awake the feeling of unpleasantness within us? If they do awake unpleasant and fearful emotions, then we will soon create the lines of separations and marks for our large group. So, a chosen feast of one large group (or chosen trauma) reminds the other group – the one that is different – on a mutual event, which then leads to unfriendliness. Having in mind the possibility of trans-generation transmitting of trauma – even the one that might have taken place 500 years ago – we consider that the priests with their ability to influence the populace, should have the influence on members of the community in their relation towards the chosen traumatic event – through solution of trans-generation chosen trauma and feasts.

Key words: Trauma – Trans-generation Transmitting- A Large Group – The Role of Priests – Crisis Situations – Instinctual Pulsing


  1. Moro Lj (1999) Religija i psihološka medicina. U: Klain E (ur): Psihološka medcina. Zagreb: Golden marketing

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.



Clinic for Psychiatry, KBC Rijeka, Rijeka University, 51 000 Rijeka, Croatia

The goal of this statement is in showing of some specific characteristics of the relations in the work with psycho-traumatised in relation to maintenance of borders. With the start of war in Croatia, the General Headquarters of the Republic of Croatia was created, and within it there was the Department for Mental Health with four fundamental parts. Within the Regional Department for Mental Health, a group of volunteers of various professions gathered to receive a psychotherapeutic education. After a short education in psycho-trauma, they were included in the work with refugees, preparation of soldiers before going to the front lines and work with the wounded in surgical and rehabilitation centres. Therapists met once a week in a form of Balint Group, working of structuring of their approach to the traumatised ones. The war circumstances had influenced the work of therapists in their approach to the traumatised and the way of their modification of their therapeutic approach. A group of therapists, who were involved in work with the traumatised since the very beginning of the war, had noted their difficulties and the ways for solution of those. Contra-transferral problems were recognised through regular consultations and supervisions. The Questionnaire by the Centre for Psychology and Social Changes under Influence of the War was applied on the supporters. The authors have paid special attention to uniqueness of emotional problems related to management of borders in therapeutic process. The problems of management are especially related to veterans.


Key words: Veterans – Contra-transfer – Therapeutic Process – PTSD


  1. Solomon Z (1995) Coping with war-induced stress. New York: Plenum Press
  2. Pernar M, Frančišković T, Moro Lj (1998) Disociative experiences of traumatised clinets and their therapists. Paper presented on 1st World veterans Conference, Dubrovnik
  3. Valent P (1995) Survival strategies: a framework for understanding secondary traumatic stress and coping in helpers. In: Figley (ed): Compassion fatigue. New York: mazzel, 21-50.

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.

Message from the Minister of Health for Tuzlanski Kanton

to the Participants of the 6th International Congress of

the World Islamic Association for Mental Health


In behalf of the Ministry of Health for the Tuzlanski Kanton and its Government, I express my great satisfaction to see the 6th International Congress of the World Islamic Association for Mental Health, taking place in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Tuzla, as the central town of our canton.

Our country has suffered great destruction in every field during the aggression. We had many innocent victims and a great part of the whole population has become refugees and displaced persons. Almost one third of the whole population of our canton still has the status of a refugee or displaced person. Close to our area is Srebrenica – a huge scaffold of Bosniaks. Many thousand of men are still regarded as missing and their children are still waiting for their fathers.

Psychological consequences of the past aggression and large and we are doing everything we can to decrease them together with our professionals from the field of mental health. The role of religion in protection of mental health and coping with psychological trauma is indubitable and I am glad to see that the leading theme of this gathering is in this most important aspect of human being. I am convinced that the Congress will mainly enlighten the extraordinary role of religion in the mental health of a modern person. On the other hand, the presentations according to the planned schedule will determine the directions of future actions in coping with psychological consequences of the past aggression.

May there be Peace, God’s Grace and Blessing for all of us.


Dr. Enes TOKIĆ

Minister of Health for

Tuzlanski Kanton

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.


ČOLIĆ hadži Mustafa Šemsi

Former Imam and Hatib of the former Mosque of Esma-sultanija in Jajce, Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina

The lecture would be given from the aspect of psychological Islam – so called Islamic Tarikatskic lecturing on of the second level. Still it would not be mystical, nor Gnostic – it would be concrete and realistic, because it would be a speech of concrete and of realistic human factor. Since the Insan is the highest completion of the known God’s Subject, Predicate and Object, therefore is the identical and existential the greatest God’s enigma – holistically viewed – and therefore after Allah it is the least known. The factual circumstances are only registered and they are not holistically defined and they are recognised within the harmony of existential category of each creature, in each creature and especially in Insan. Lecture would therefore be harmonised with the factual circumstance of myself, the lecturer, and those circumstances should be the mystified dictation for the circumstances of respected elite participants.

Vallahul muveffiku vel muršidu!

Vesselamu ala menit-tebeal-huda!


6TH International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 – 15, 1999.



Department of Psychiatry, South Africa

ICD and DSM classification of psychotic disorders is both confusing and unnecessary. I believe the classifications are misleading as they create the notion that there are discrete psychotic entities. This of course is hardly true. Psychosis is psychosis. The problem, I believe has arisen because we not have precise definition of the word psychosis. Let me try to define psychosis. Persons with psychosis have impairments in thinking (such as thought disorder and delusion) and perception (such as hallucinations). This is reflected in their behaviour, which may be disorganised, aggressive and bizarre. The impairments in thinking and perception lead them to make incorrect infancies about reality. They therefore lack insight and are unable to give a proper or coherent account of themselves. We must also take into account those psychotic symptoms or psychotic features traditionally are defines as hallucinatory delusions. Having defined these terms we can now say that this, for example, is a psychotic disorder or that this other disorder is a mood disorder with psychotic features. We could of course simply state that this is a psychotic disorder per se or alternatively he/she is psychotic at the time of examination or correctly. The next point I wish to tackle is the point about duration in relation to ICD or DSM. Both these classification systems insist that the symptoms/signs must exist for at least 1 month or 6/12 before a diagnosis of the disorder (under discussion) may be made.

Let’s take an example. All the signs and symptoms for schizophrenia are present but because these are not present continuously for at least 6/12, a diagnosis of schizophrenia cannot be made (according to DSM). The wide divergence of duration between ICD and DSM, the former recommending the duration of symptoms should be 1/12 , illustrates the point. The duration of even one-month is often not satisfied as with modern health amenities and modern pharmacological intervention, the disorder is aborted after, say 10 days. According to DSM and ICD, therefore, if the duration criteria are not met then what are we dealing with: just wait for it Schizophrenia. The duration criteria are therefore difficult to meet for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Even so the duration, as given by the patient, is not reliable as signs and symptoms may go unnoticed for weeks or months, by patient and family.

Instead of duration, therefore, what needs to be established is the chronic of the psychosis. Of course the other criteria of schizophrenia must be satisfied.

  1. Disturbance of thinking;
  2. Disturbance in perceptions;
  3. Disturbance in affection;
  4. Disturbance in behaviour;
  5. Disturbance in functioning;
  6. Prodromal and residual symptoms.

Again the duration criterion of 2/52 of signs/symptoms for depression is awkward. Fulminating symptoms/signs of depression may be present say for one week, but a diagnosis of depression cannot be made, as we have not satisfied the criterion of 2/52 duration.

Is the diagnosis then nearly the depression. Depression is depression, whether it is present for one week, one month or one year. What we may rather say is that the diagnosis is brief or short-lived, or prolonged or recurrent or resistant depression. The duration criterion for depression is therefore cumbersome and restrictive.

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 -15, 1999.



Department of Psychology, University of Sarajevo,

71 000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Psychological Consequences of the aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina are deeply engraved in conscious and unconscious layer of the personality of the chronic traumatised persons. Many citizens, especially Bosniaks, have been exposed to a long-lasting and repeated trauma during the aggression. Persons, who survived the horrible circumstances of imprisonment in the Chetniks’ and Ustashas’ concentration camps, still express the symptoms of heavy psychic consequences two years after Dayton. Analysis of the concentration camp inmates’ statements points out that a certain number of individuals who were exposed to a long-lasting and repeated trauma demonstrate the heaviest symptoms of the posttraumatic stress disorder. These persons, as well as other chronic trauma victims have visible changes in cognitive, emotional and cognitive aspect of their personality. We shall set aside only some of them; loss of feeling of own identity, feeling of helplessness, depression and emotional dullness, "robot behaviour", extended depression, absence of initiative, etc. Having in mind that chronic trauma appears more frequently in the conditions of the concentration camp life, the professional literature therefore names this heavy psychological consequence as the "Syndrome of concentration camp" or "Syndrome of surviving".

The process of recovery of chronic trauma affected persons impose, besides other, psychological measures. The fundamental psychological interventions contain the needs of getting acquainted with characteristics of the Circumstances and events, characteristics of personality of chronic trauma affected persons and characteristics of social and cultural milieu in which the chronic trauma victims now live.

In offering appropriate psychosocial help to the chronic trauma affected persons it is necessary to create a suitable and encouraging psychosocial atmosphere in which a chronic trauma victim will feel the need of "facing the traumatic experience" by him. In such atmosphere, in experiencing actual social care and support, intra-psychic of rejection (avoiding of thinking and speaking about the sufferings experienced) intrusions (compulsive repeated experience of the events connected with the trauma) and search for meaning will go along the desirable ways of recovery. Within the psychological intervention system of measures the objective is stimulation of sound process of mastering traumatic experiences (informing and assistance in practical actions, emotional support, testing of reality, encountering with experience) as well as their including in particular flows of social, educational and professional activity.

Key Words: Chronic Trauma – Recovery – Psychological Measures

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13-15, 1999.




71 000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

While analysing all what happened during the aggression against Bosnia and Herzegovina it is inconceivable not to stress a Bosniak woman – the victim of rape – the victim of aggression. A woman who carried out this genocide war on her shoulders, a Bosniak woman who experienced all possible humiliations from Chetniks and Ustashas. The aggressors did not choose the age, authority, origin; the aggressors destroyed everything they came across, from an innocent child – seven years old to an old woman of 87. The terror over the Bosniak woman has been conducted through a well thought-out plan, since they were aware that if they break her, the Bosniak woman, if they kill her soul and her body, the whole nation would be killed – and this is what was the only goal of theirs. The Bosniak woman withstood all tortures invented by the aggressor, She – proud, with her head raised she continued to live the life she has lived earlier. The only aim for her was to give birth again, to bring up her future children so as to remember well what their mother, sister, grand-mother did experience – not for the revenge, but not to forget the evil done by the aggressor with the aim to exterminate them. The Bosniak woman will carry with her while the trauma of rape as the most disgusting act she had ever experienced since she, as a Bosniak girl was brought-up in a different way. Her innocence must be saved, as they spoke to her, for her beloved husband, to whom she will be devoted, whose home she will take care and whom she will follow closely. But, it was destined to be in another way: she had to give birth to a child who was conceived in the most shameful manner, by force, under threats, by beating. She frequently was watching her being raped in the presence of her close relatives, with whom she is now living. But, there happened what did happen; she steps further on proud, since according to Islam she was not guilty for what did happen to her by force. She is further on the pride and the future of her country, her state, her Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Key words: Woman – Victim – Rape

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.



Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Psychology, Sarajevo University, 71 000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Concentration of classic stresses during the siege of Sarajevo, from 1992 to 1995, has surely created in its synthesis the SRESSOR x, whose complexity leads to secret non-determination. The range of beliefs has determined recognisable phenomenon of resistance to FEAR and SENSELESS through various forms of behaviour among the citizens of Sarajevo. Rational strategy of destruction and disaster with a chronological start has created a non-understandable resistance marked by HOPE. The UNKNOWN calendar end of the struggle in Sarajevo and Bosnia had determined mental state of the jeopardised citizens through their hope in resolution, releasing the awakened FAITH in the justice of the God, the power of need for ESTEEM towards the victims. In that way, it had visibly exposed up-to-then invisible forms of MUTUAL REVERENCE. I will support the given stands by the EVENTS from the town in siege, full of hope and faith as a mark of MENTAL status of parents whose children were killed in the war.


Key words: Hope – Believing – Sarajevo under Siege

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.


1 2



Department of Psychology, Philosophy Faculty, University of Sarajevo,


71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Institute of Psychology, University of Munich, Germany

War events have an impact on children’s psychological and social development. Actually, many expelled adolescents know nothing yet on the destiny of their missing fathers, who had been brutally taken away in an unknown direction. Living in a family where the father is missing means growing up under a number of negative conditions. One of them is lack of social support. In the present study we first investigated the amount of perceived availability of social support of adolescents with a missing father and compared this with a control group. Furthermore we studied the impact of the perceived availability of social support on depression scores of adolescents with a missing fathers and controls. The sample consisted of 404 carry adolescents, ages ranging 11-15 years from fourteen primary schools on the Sarajevo Canton territory. There were 201 adolescents with a missing father (106 boys and 95 girls) and 203 controls (99 boys and 104 girls with the father at home). We used self-report instruments to assess depressive symptoms and perceived availability of social support (from peers-friend, teachers and family). The investigation was carried out during spring 1998 and supported by VW-Stiftung Trauma Program. The results indicate that there is no significant difference between the two groups on the levels of the perceived availability of social support. Also they showed that adolescents with better social support have lower levels of depressive reactions.

Key words: Missing fathers – Social support

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.



Muslim Secondary School of Behram-beg in Tuzla, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

A man can not reach the inner peace until he considers that the radical hedonism is the goal of living and that egoism and greed lead to harmony and peace, in other words, until his human well being is reduced to animal needs and until he refuses to re-consider his needs above his own Earthly existence. The fundamental principle of the Islam religion is Testimony, ‘Shehadeh’, which denies the idea of divine in everything except the God. This directly makes relative all values of the world of immanence. The faith in God leads to vagueness every idea of search for the Purpose and the Goal in the world of this-sidelines. Through its Esbatologic perspective, it gifts the men with the true sense of living. The God created the Universe where the absolute harmony rules ‘Sunnetullah’. Through different ceremonial forms such as Prayer and Hadj, the man sinks into the Universal harmony of following the absolute order. Through the Prayer as a certain spiritual communication of transcendent with immanent, through abstraction of own every-day living, the human nature experiences the inner balance and joins the Universal hymn glorifying the God. Such spiritual practice is repeated during the night and day in at least five timely intervals and it has its beneficial influences to the human spirit, it stabilises its inner world and gifts it with the spiritual peace.


Key words: Islam – Inner World – Spiritual Peace


  1. Kur’an
  2. T.Burckhardt, Instruction for Inner Studying of Islam, Zagreb, 1994.
  3. S.H. Nasr, Traditional Islam in the Modern World, Sarajevo, 1994.
  4. M. Lings, What is Suphism? Zagreb, 1994.

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.


1 1 2 3


4 4


1 2

Faculty for Special Education of the Tuzla University, Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Clinical Centre, Faculty of Medicine of the Tuzla


University, Centre for Children Disturbed in Development "Steps of Hope", 75000


Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Polytechnic School for Social Studies, Seinajoki, Finland

On the case of seven children with mobility disturbances, we have applied the rehabilitation and special education programme of the art therapy with visual and mobile, tactile and manipulative, as well as cognitive and perceptive stimulation, with the goal to release creative potentials. In the environment of individually and collectively invented creation, we had applied various contents and techniques – drawing, painting, palm and finger painting, modelling, etc – with various materials – clay, pasta, paper, dry flowers, dry fruits, harvest, fabric, wool, metal, plastic and other. The general impression is that the applied rehabilitation method of art therapy had improved the level of visual and mobile, tactile and manipulative, as well as perceptive and cognitive activities in the analytical and synthetic stimulation. It had decreased the level of aggression and depression and had initiated spontaneous mechanisms of compensation. It had also improved acceptance of own handicap, raised the level of self-confidence, improved imagination, and attention; and generally had contributed to psychosocial adaptation as the preposition for successful social integration. Positive influence of creative therapy is also seen in strengthening of inner motivation, aesthetic and functional quality, mobility and physical position. Those children had also shown interest in aesthetic formulation of the environment in which they lived, and that is another indicator of the art therapy influence.

Key words: Rehabilitation – Creativity – Therapy


  1. Pijaže Ž (1977) Psychology of Intelligence. Beograd: Nolit
  2. Inhelder B (1988) Intellectual Development of a Child: Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva Beograd
  3. Kiš-Glavaš L, Teodorović B. i Levandovski D (1991) Programme of Fundamental Perceptive and Mobile Stimulation. Zagreb: Fakultet za defektologiju

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.



Neurological and Psychiatric Clinic of the Clinical Centre in Sarajevo

Cranio-cerebral injuries (KCP) take a special place in the clinical practice due to higher frequency and due to consequences on psychical and neurological fields. On the psychical field, the sequences can be exposed in a form of neuro-psychical deficit of a different level. With some of the traumatised, processes of remembering and perception are strongly taken, while with others are stronger the changes of personality. Evaluation of psychical disorders has to relay on some postulates that are obligatorily for all physicians and associates.

Diagnostic procedure has to start with the information on health condition before the treatment – earlier injuries and sequences of those, alcoholism, disorders in consciousness and especially psycho-pathologic exposures (medical documentation). This is rather important if the injury is not difficult, if it took place at work, if the court procedure is started. The other postulates are founded on the examination of medical documentation from the current phase of the trauma (release letter, sometimes the history of illness in extenso). We are talking of a retrospective procedure, because we need to valorise sequences with difficult KCP one or two years after the injury, and especially if those are young people (possibility of recovery is significant). Within the documentation the following needs to be taken into account – qualification of injury, length of unconscious being and posttraumatic amnesia, neurological defect. Psychic disorders, EEG, computerised tomography of brain (CTM), eventual magnetic resonance. The third postulate is a careful medical finding – neurological and psychical state (psychiatric interview) with additional findings. Neurological defect can indirectly show the difficulty of KCP. Evaluation of psychic disorders needs to start by the finding of psychiatrists and psychologist (battery of psychological tests, especially to organicites), as well as CTM (atrophy with asymmetric enlargement of commoral system, focal atrophy and contusion), and especially if demency is in question. Team and simultaneous work of all participants of the evaluation is needed, what is unfortunately not always the case in the clinical practice and therefore the mistakes are often met.

As a conclusion, we can say that the evaluation of psychical disorders after the KCP is rather complex and delicate, and that it relays on certain postulates, which are obligatory for all participants. Only and overall examination and critical judgement of all named factors can provide fundaments for a correct level of cerebral dysfunction.


Key words: Cranio-cerebral Injury – Psychical Disorder – Doctrinaire Approach

6th International Congress of the WIAMH

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, August 13 - 15, 1999.



The history of modern psychiatric service in Bosnia and Herzegovina is rather short. The first psychiatric institution was established in 1894 in the former Vakufska Bolnica of Sarajevo, and in 1907 within the Zemaljska Bolnica, a newly constructed psychiatric department with 113 beds was set.

During the time between the two world wars, the number of beds for psychiatric patients had not increased and there were no significant improvements of psychiatric service. The psychiatric department of the General State Hospital Koševo in Sarajevo, remained as the only psychiatric institution in Bosnia and Herzegovina until 1948.

Since that time, the psychiatric service was under intensive development. Therefore, before the war the psychiatric service was organised following the below given principles.

  1. Within the outpatient clinics there were psychiatric departments with neuro-psychiatrists and nurses, and psychologists and social workers as consultants. Psychiatric services within the outpatient clinics worked with the narrowest relation with the primary health service and it dealt with the treatment of psychotic and non-psychotic disorders. Prevention activities were not treated to a great deal and the role of the community in improvement of mental health was almost fully ignored.
  2. Within the general hospitals on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, there were neuro-psychiatric departments, which treated acute psychotic and other disorders over a certain short period..
  3. On the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, at the same time existed large psychiatric hospitals (Sokolac, Jagomir, Domanovići) and a psychiatric colony (Jakeš near Modriče). The later was consisted of a classic psychiatric hospital for long-term patients, very developed occupational and working therapy, hetero-family accommodation of patients in the families in surrounding villages (Garevac, Jakeš). Psychiatric hospitals had an average of 300 heavy patients, while Jakeš near Modriča had 800 to 1000 clients.
  4. Treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction was carried out throughout Institutes for treatment of Alcoholism and other addictions and the Centre for treatment of Drug Addiction of the Psychiatric clinic in Sarajevo. Primary and tertiary prevention of alcoholism was dealt with within 120 clubs of treated alcoholics.
  5. More difficult mentally retarded persons were treated in special institutions of the social welfare system, and those with smaller mental retardation were treated and rehabilitated within their own families and educated in a number of special schools.

According to the data from the Republic Institute for Health Protection Sarajevo, the state of the neuro-psychiatric services in BIH, on 31 December 1991 was as follows – the total number of neuro-psychiatrists was 2337, total number of physicians who were specialising for neuro-psychiatrists was 56, number of medical personnel with high education level was 100, the number of medical personnel with secondary education was 897, number of medical personnel with low education was 36, and the total number of beds was 2822.

The first months of the aggression on Republic Bosnia and Herzegovina lead to various disorders in all fields of life. The especially difficult repercussions of war activities and destruction were seen on psychiatric services – hospitals and patients. Psychiatric hospitals Jagomir and Domanovići were closed. Numerous patients – who had spent ten or more years in such institutions – were left to the streets with no support and control. Some of them disappeared, and some were wounded and killed.

Since the very beginning of the war, the worst situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina was in Sarajevo – not only for the extremely difficult worsening of living conditions, wounding and killing of people, but also due to lack of food, water, electrical supplies and all other necessities for living. Since the very beginning and until the end of the war, the only psychiatric institution that was operational with no breaks, was the Psychiatric Clinic. The largest number of displaced psychiatric patients from the hospital in Jagomir was accommodated in the small space of this Clinic.

Having seen the situation at the very beginning of the war, all psychiatric personnel that was available, was distributed in district units and collective centres all over the city under siege.